How to Talk to Teens About Alcohol

Understanding how to talk to teens about alcohol involves initiating an open, non-judgmental dialogue. It’s essential to encourage them to share their thoughts and feelings while you provide factual information about the risks and consequences of underage drinking. Highlighting the importance of making safe and healthy choices, reassure them you’re a trusted source of support and guidance.

Approaching the subject of alcohol with teenagers can be daunting. It’s a topic fraught with potential for misunderstanding but also ripe with opportunities for education and connection.

Recognizing the importance of this dialogue is the first step in navigating these conversations effectively. Communication is an important aspect of preventing alcohol use among teens, as well as continuing abstinence for teens exploring the benefits of substance abuse or dual diagnosis treatment at a teen treatment center.

This article explores how to talk to teens about alcohol.

How to Talk to Teens About Alcohol

Talking to teens about alcohol doesn’t have to be a lecture filled with dire warnings.

Instead, it should be a conversation acknowledging their growing independence while providing them with the information they need to make safe choices. It’s about balancing informing and listening, offering guidance while respecting their ability to understand and process information.

Understanding their perspective is as crucial as sharing your own.

The more you discuss alcohol use and its dangers, the more informed your teen will be when inevitably introduced to the opportunity to use alcohol. This can help decrease the chance your teen will decide to experiment with alcohol.

Adolescent weekly alcohol use declined from 2002 to 2010 in 20 of 28 countries, likely due to increased awareness of harmful effects and prevention efforts, or changes in social norms (Oxford).

Here’s how to talk to teens about alcohol.

Start by Discussing the Risks of Alcohol

When considering how to talk to teens about alcohol, it’s vital to address the risks without inducing fear or defiance.

Begin by acknowledging their growing autonomy and the presence of alcohol in social settings they may encounter. Explain how alcohol can impair judgment, leading to risky behaviors and potentially dangerous situations.

Discuss the dangerous effects of alcohol on teens, such as loss of coordination and altered decision-making, and tie these to real-life consequences like accidents or legal troubles.

Emphasize that your goal is not to scare them but to equip them with knowledge to make informed decisions. Encourage questions and share stories that illustrate these points, making the risks of alcohol relatable and understandable.

Related: 10 Dangerous Consequences of Underage Drinking

Building Trust Before Discussing Alcohol Use

Building trust is a foundational step in how to talk to teens about alcohol. It’s about creating an environment where they feel safe to express their thoughts and curiosities about drinking without fear of judgment or immediate punishment.

Start by sharing your own experiences and vulnerabilities related to alcohol, demonstrating that you understand its complexities.

Regular, casual conversations about day-to-day matters can strengthen this trust, making more serious discussions about alcohol feel like a natural extension of your relationship.

Show that you respect their opinions and feelings, and clarify that your primary concern is their well-being and safety.

Related: What to Do if You Find Your Teenager Drinking

Provide Clear Facts About Alcohol’s Health Effects

Providing clear facts about alcohol’s health effects is crucial when talking to your teen about drinking.

Use reliable sources to explain how alcohol affects the brain, particularly the developing adolescent brain, which is more susceptible to alcohol-related damage.

Discuss how alcohol can affect their mood, memory, and decision-making processes and lead to longer-term health issues, such as liver damage, addiction, and mental health disorders.

By presenting the facts in an accessible and engaging way, you help your teen understand the importance of making informed choices about alcohol.

Remember to frame this information as a basis for conversation, not as a lecture, to foster open dialogue.

Related: The Dangers of Teenage Binge Drinking

Active Listening: Understanding Their Perspective on Drinking

Active listening plays a key role in understanding their perspective on drinking.

When discussing how to talk to teens about alcohol, emphasize your willingness to hear their views and experiences without interrupting or jumping to conclusions.

This approach shows that you value their opinions and feelings, which can lead to more open and honest discussions about alcohol. Ask open-ended questions to encourage them to share their thoughts and listen attentively to their responses.

Reflect on what they say to demonstrate that you are genuinely listening. This practice helps you understand their perspective and strengthens your relationship, making future conversations about sensitive topics more accessible to navigate.

Related: The Effects of Teenage Drinking on the Body

Highlighting Long-Term Consequences of Underage Drinking

In talking to your teen about drinking, highlighting the long-term consequences of underage drinking is essential. Explain how habits formed in adolescence can persist into adulthood, potentially leading to dependency or addiction.

Discuss the broader implications, such as how alcohol can impact academic performance, career opportunities, and personal relationships. Use age-appropriate examples to illustrate how alcohol abuse can derail life goals and dreams.

This conversation should be framed within the context of caring and concern rather than as a scare tactic. Offer them a vision of a healthy future where they are in control of their choices, including their decisions about alcohol.

Encouraging Alternatives to Alcohol for Stress Relief

When discussing how to talk to teens about alcohol, it’s essential to address the reality that some may view drinking as a way to cope with stress.

Encourage your teen to explore healthier stress relief alternatives that contribute to their well-being. Introduce activities like exercise, which releases endorphins, creative hobbies that offer a sense of accomplishment, or mindfulness practices such as meditation and yoga that help manage anxiety.

Engage in these activities together whenever possible to not only model healthy coping mechanisms but also to strengthen your bond.

Conversations about these alternatives should be framed as suggestions rather than directives, empowering your teen to make choices that best suit their interests and needs.

Related: The Danger of Teens Self-medicating with Alcohol

Demonstrating Responsible Alcohol Use at Home

Talking to your teen about drinking responsibly can be reinforced by demonstrating responsible alcohol use at home.

This includes modeling moderate drinking behaviors, discussing the reasons behind your alcohol consumption, and never glorifying excessive drinking.

Explain the importance of understanding one’s limits and the social and legal responsibilities of drinking. Make it clear that responsible alcohol use is part of being an adult and involves making decisions that consider the well-being of oneself and others.

This approach teaches by example and opens the floor for discussions about alcohol in a realistic and relatable context.

Support Over Punishment for Alcohol Misuse

When addressing alcohol misuse, emphasizing support over punishment is key in how to talk to teens about alcohol.

If your teen has experimented with alcohol or made a mistake related to drinking, approach the situation with empathy and concern rather than anger. Use the incident as a learning opportunity to discuss the reasons behind their choices and the potential risks involved. Offer guidance on making safer decisions in the future and reassure them that your support is unwavering.

This approach helps maintain open lines of communication and reinforces that you are a trusted source of help and advice, not just discipline.

Related: How to Talk to Your Teenager Without Arguing

Strategies to Resist Peer Pressure Around Drinking

Teaching strategies to resist peer pressure around drinking is a vital aspect of talking to your teen about alcohol. Discuss the importance of self-confidence and the power of saying “no” when they may feel pressured to drink.

Role-play different scenarios where they might face peer pressure and brainstorm responses that help them stand firm in their decisions. Encourage them to surround themselves with friends who respect their choices and to have an exit plan for uncomfortable situations.

Highlight the importance of personal integrity and the strength it takes to adhere to one’s values, even in the face of peer pressure.

Teen Alcohol Treatment at Visions

If navigating conversations about alcohol with your teen feels overwhelming, Visions Adolescent Treatment Centers located in Southern California offer specialized support.

Our programs for teen substance abuse and dual diagnosis treatment can provide your family with the tools and guidance needed to address alcohol use constructively.

Explore how our compassionate, expert-led approach can make a difference in your teen’s life. Contact us today to learn how we can help you and your teen.


Talking to teens about alcohol is about more than just warning them of the dangers; it’s about building trust, providing information, and supporting them in making informed decisions.

These ongoing conversations are part of a more extensive dialogue about health, safety, and growing up. Visions Adolescent Treatment Centers are here to help if you need support.

Contact us to learn how we can support your family in navigating these important discussions.


The Dangers of Teenage Binge Drinking

There are many dangers of teenage binge drinking, including severe health effects like liver damage, impaired judgment leading to risky behaviors, and long-lasting impacts on mental health. The risks extend beyond the immediate, potentially affecting educational performance and future well-being.

The issue of teenage binge drinking is more than just a phase – it’s a widespread problem that exposes teens to a myriad of health and safety risks. While society often dismisses it as a youthful indiscretion, the consequences can be severe and long-lasting. Parents, educators, and healthcare providers must understand the full scope of the problem to protect the well-being of our youth. In this article, we explore the dangers of teenage binge drinking, offering a comprehensive look at what’s at stake.

What is Binge Drinking?

Binge drinking is generally defined as consuming enough alcohol within a short time frame, usually two hours, to bring blood alcohol concentration levels to 0.08% or higher. For males, this typically amounts to five or more drinks, and for females, four or more drinks. While the term is often associated with college-aged young adults, it is a concerning trend among high school students as well.

The Dangers of Teenage Binge Drinking

The risks associated with binge drinking are severe and can have life-altering effects. From impaired cognitive function to the potential for alcohol poisoning, binge drinking is a high-risk activity that should not be taken lightly.

Here are 10 dangers of teenage binge drinking you should know.

1. Liver Damage

The liver plays a crucial role in detoxifying the body, including the metabolism of alcohol. However, the liver can only metabolize a certain amount of alcohol per hour.

Binge drinking overwhelms this natural detoxification process, causing alcohol to accumulate in the bloodstream and inflict damage on liver cells. Initially, this might lead to fatty liver disease, an early stage of liver dysfunction that is often reversible. However, continued abuse of alcohol may lead to more severe conditions like alcoholic hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver.

Over the long term, consistent binge drinking can result in cirrhosis, a scarring of the liver tissue that can be fatal. For teens, the risk is heightened, as their bodies are still developing, making them more susceptible to long-lasting damage.

2. Impaired Judgment

One of the most immediate and observable effects of binge drinking is impaired judgment. Alcohol inhibits the function of the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain responsible for rational thinking and decision-making.

As a result, teens who binge drink often engage in risky behaviors they might otherwise avoid. This includes driving under the influence, which puts not only the intoxicated individual at risk but also everyone else on the road. Lowered inhibitions may also result in unsafe sexual practices, potentially leading to unwanted pregnancies or sexually transmitted infections. The consequences of a single night of impaired judgment can thus have far-reaching effects on a teenager’s life.

3. Alcohol Poisoning

Alcohol poisoning is an acute medical emergency that can occur when large amounts of alcohol are consumed in a short period. The condition is especially dangerous because it can suppress vital life functions like breathing and heart rate.

Symptoms of alcohol poisoning include extreme confusion, vomiting, seizures, slow or irregular breathing, and unconsciousness. In severe cases, alcohol poisoning can lead to coma or even death. Immediate medical intervention is crucial, often involving supportive treatments to safeguard breathing and heart function.

For teens, the risk of alcohol poisoning is particularly alarming because they are often inexperienced with alcohol, unaware of their limits, and more likely to engage in binge drinking behaviors.

4. Mental Health Impact

The relationship between binge drinking and mental health is complex and concerning. Excessive drinking has been found to exacerbate existing mental health conditions, but it can also be the catalyst for the onset of new disorders.

Alcohol is a depressant, which means it can severely affect mood and emotional well-being. For teens who binge drink, there’s an increased likelihood of experiencing depressive episodes, heightened anxiety, and elevated stress levels. Additionally, the act of binge drinking often serves as a coping mechanism for underlying emotional or psychological issues, creating a vicious cycle that worsens mental health over time.

It’s not uncommon for adolescents to develop co-occurring disorders, where a substance abuse problem exists alongside another mental health issue like depression or anxiety, complicating treatment and recovery.

5. Educational Consequences

The toll that binge drinking takes on academic life can be both immediate and long-lasting.

In the short term, hangovers and lack of sleep from a night of heavy drinking can lead to poor concentration, missed assignments, and tardiness or absenteeism. This pattern often results in deteriorating grades and disciplinary issues. Moreover, cognitive impairments linked to binge drinking can affect a teen’s ability to process information, engage in critical thinking, and retain knowledge—factors crucial for academic success.

The cumulative effect can lead to academic probation or even expulsion, narrowing future educational and career opportunities. The long-term consequences extend beyond school, potentially affecting job prospects and lifetime earnings.

6. Long-Term Addiction

The connection between adolescent binge drinking and long-term addiction is particularly alarming. The adolescent brain is still in the process of developing, making it more susceptible to the addictive properties of substances like alcohol. Studies have shown that individuals who begin drinking before the age of 15 are four times more likely to develop alcohol dependence at some point in their lives compared to those who start drinking at age 21 or later.

Early exposure to alcohol can normalize the act of heavy drinking, ingraining unhealthy patterns that persist into adulthood. This normalization can lead to a diminished perception of the risks associated with alcohol, making it easier to slip into a cycle of dependence that requires professional intervention to break.

7. Relationship Strains

Binge drinking can take a severe toll on relationships, both familial and social. It often results in mistrust, broken commitments, and emotional distance between the teen and their family members or friends. The erratic behaviors associated with binge drinking can alienate peers and can even lead to conflicts that have legal ramifications. In intimate relationships, binge drinking may contribute to toxicity or abuse, setting a dangerous pattern that could persist into adulthood.

Family dynamics are particularly affected. Parents find it hard to trust a child who is consistently drinking to excess, and this can result in strained communications and escalating tensions at home. In the worst scenarios, siblings and other family members might also be negatively influenced or directly harmed by the teen’s behavior.

8. Legal Troubles

The legal implications of teenage binge drinking are both immediate and long-lasting. Underage drinking is illegal in many jurisdictions, and getting caught can lead to a range of consequences including fines, community service, and even jail time for repeat offenders.

A criminal record can have a detrimental impact on a teen’s future, affecting college admissions, employment opportunities, and even housing applications. Drunk driving charges can result in the suspension of a driver’s license, significantly limiting one’s freedom and mobility. Moreover, legal troubles can bring about a cascade of other problems, including family strife and damage to one’s reputation, which can be hard to repair.

9. Physical Harm

Binge drinking doesn’t just harm internal organs; it can also result in immediate physical harm. Alcohol-induced clumsiness and impaired judgment can lead to accidents like falls, car crashes, or physical altercations.

Additionally, binge drinking is often linked to violence, either as the perpetrator or the victim. Physical injuries resulting from these incidents can range from minor to severe, including broken bones, concussions, or more dire consequences. In extreme cases, binge drinking can even result in death, whether from a fatal accident or from acute alcohol poisoning.

10. Developmental Effects

The teenage years are a critical period for brain and body development. Consistent binge drinking can have a profound impact on this delicate process. Alcohol affects the development of the brain’s frontal lobes, essential for functions such as planning, forming judgments, and maintaining self-control.

This disruption in brain development can lead to learning difficulties and hinder academic performance. Furthermore, alcohol can interfere with the adolescent hormonal balance necessary for puberty, growth, and the development of healthy bone density. The consequences are not just limited to physical health but extend to emotional and psychological well-being, potentially affecting a teen’s quality of life well into adulthood.

Substance Abuse Treatment at Visions

Visions Teen Treatment Centers specialize in tackling the tough issues affecting today’s youth.

Our highly qualified staff and evidence-based approaches provide a safe and supportive atmosphere for adolescents grappling with substance abuse. Why let another day go by when help is within reach?

Contact us to start your path toward healing.


Teenage binge drinking is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. Understanding the risks is the first step in prevention and treatment. As a parent, guardian, or caregiver, it’s crucial to educate ourselves and our teens about the dangers associated with binge drinking.

Don’t let your teen navigate these risks alone—seek professional help to guide them toward a safer, healthier future. Reach out to us today to learn more about our treatment options.


The Effects of Teenage Drinking on the Body

Teenage drinking can have severe and long-lasting effects on the body, from impaired cognitive function to damage to vital organs. Beyond immediate consequences like poor decision-making and accidents, the physiological impact can ripple into adulthood, affecting one’s overall health and well-being.

While many adolescents may view drinking as a rite of passage, the consequences of underage drinking are far more serious than many realize. Not only does it impair judgment and lead to risky behaviors, but it also has significant physiological impacts. As a teen’s body is still developing, the adverse effects of alcohol can be more pronounced and have lasting consequences. In this article, you will discover the effects of teenage drinking on the body.

10 Effects of Teenage Drinking on the Body

The risks associated with teenage drinking are multifaceted and often extend beyond the immediate repercussions. Long-term, underage drinking can cause irreversible damage to vital organs, interfere with healthy development, and contribute to chronic health issues.

Here are some of the negative effects of teenage drinking on the body.

1. Liver Damage

The liver plays a critical role in the body’s metabolic processes, including detoxifying chemicals and metabolizing drugs. For teenagers, whose bodies are still in the development stage, the liver is especially susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol. Drinking can lead to liver inflammation, known as alcoholic hepatitis, a condition that can cause symptoms like jaundice, abdominal pain, and nausea. In severe cases, it can result in fatty liver, an early stage of alcoholic liver disease, and even escalate to liver cirrhosis. The latter involves the scarring of liver tissue and can severely hamper the liver’s ability to function, leading to a host of health problems that could necessitate a liver transplant in extreme cases.

2. Brain Development

The adolescent brain is still under construction, with key areas involved in decision-making and impulse control being some of the last to develop. Alcohol exposure during this crucial time can impede neural connections, affecting cognitive functions like memory, attention, and spatial skills. The long-term repercussions can be especially severe, including diminished cognitive abilities and even an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s later in life. Furthermore, alcohol’s depressant qualities can exacerbate or precipitate mental health conditions such as depression or anxiety, further adding to the challenges an adolescent may face.

3. Heart Issues

Heart health is not usually a primary concern for teenagers, but excessive drinking can lay the groundwork for cardiovascular problems that typically don’t manifest until later in life. Alcohol can increase the levels of some fats in the bloodstream, leading to high cholesterol and hypertension, both of which are risk factors for heart disease. Furthermore, binge drinking episodes can lead to irregular heartbeats, known as arrhythmias, and an elevated risk for cardiomyopathy, a condition where the heart muscle weakens. These factors can create a cascade of cardiovascular issues, making early intervention crucial to prevent more severe problems as one ages.

4. Hormonal Imbalance

The teenage years are a critical period for hormonal development, which not only influences physical growth but also mood and brain chemistry. Consuming alcohol can significantly disrupt this delicate balance. For instance, alcohol can interfere with the body’s production of testosterone and estrogen, the primary male and female sex hormones, potentially leading to fertility issues and even sexual dysfunction in the long run. Additionally, alcohol has been found to interfere with the stress hormone cortisol, which could contribute to mental health issues like anxiety and depression. Hormonal imbalances could also affect metabolic rates, sleep patterns, and immune function, complicating the already tumultuous period of adolescence.

5. Increased Risk of Addiction

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to developing addictive behaviors because their brains are still in a crucial stage of development, especially in the areas responsible for impulse control and judgment. Alcohol is an addictive substance, and early exposure significantly increases the risk of developing alcohol use disorders later in life. Teenagers who begin drinking before the age of 15 are four times more likely to become addicted to alcohol compared to those who start at age 21 or later. Early alcohol use not only predisposes an individual to alcohol addiction but can also serve as a gateway to other substance abuses like opioids, stimulants, or sedatives.

6. Poor Academic Performance

The brain regions that control attention, memory, and executive functions like planning and organization are still maturing during the teen years. Alcohol can severely disrupt these processes, leading to an immediate impact on academic performance. Lack of focus, decreased cognitive abilities, and memory lapses can make it difficult for teens to perform well in school, leading to falling grades and increased dropout rates. The effects of alcohol on academic performance aren’t just immediate; they can also have long-term repercussions. Poor grades can limit future educational and job opportunities, setting the stage for a cascade of life-altering consequences.

7. Mental Health Effects

Teenage years are a formative period for mental health, and the introduction of alcohol can complicate this development significantly. Alcohol is a depressant, which means it can dampen mood and contribute to conditions like depression and anxiety. Moreover, excessive drinking can lead to episodes of anger, aggressiveness, and even symptoms of more severe mental health disorders like bipolar disorder. Alcohol can also increase suicidal ideation and risk-taking behavior, making it a critical concern for adolescents who are already more susceptible to these tendencies.

8. Impaired Judgment

One of the immediate effects of alcohol consumption is impaired judgment, a factor that can have dire consequences for teenagers. This impairment can lead to risky behaviors like unsafe sex, reckless driving, or engaging in violent activities. The lack of judgment can also result in long-lasting repercussions like legal troubles or significant harm to themselves or others. The regions of the brain responsible for decision-making are still developing in adolescents, making the influence of alcohol on judgment even more potent and potentially dangerous during this life stage.

9. Digestive Problems

While the liver is the organ most commonly associated with alcohol metabolism, the digestive system is not immune to the effects of alcohol. Chronic drinking can lead to a range of gastrointestinal issues including gastritis, acid reflux, and ulcers. In the long term, this can result in nutritional deficiencies as the body struggles to absorb essential nutrients. For teenagers, who are still growing and require a balanced diet for proper development, this can be particularly detrimental.

10. Immune System Suppression

The immune system is another critical system that alcohol can adversely affect. Regular drinking, even in small amounts, can interfere with the body’s ability to fight off infections. For teenagers, this means an increased susceptibility to illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe infections. A compromised immune system can lead to more frequent sickness, which can again have knock-on effects on school attendance and academic performance. It can also make vaccinations less effective and slow down the body’s ability to heal from injuries or surgeries.

Substance Abuse Treatment at Visions

If you or a teen you know is struggling with substance abuse, it’s not too late to seek help. At Visions, we specialize in adolescent substance abuse treatment, offering a comprehensive, personalized approach to recovery. With our highly trained staff and evidence-based methods, we provide a safe environment where teenagers can confront their issues head-on and begin the path to recovery. Contact us today to explore how we can help your family.


Teenage drinking poses severe and long-lasting consequences on both physical and emotional well-being. The risks are too great to ignore, and early intervention is key to preventing long-term damage. For those in need, expert help is available to navigate the challenging journey of recovery. Don’t wait for the situation to worsen; take action today to ensure a healthier tomorrow.


The Dangerous Effects of Alcohol on Teens

The dangerous effects of alcohol on teens include impaired judgment and coordination, which can lead to risky behaviors like drunk driving and unprotected sex. Alcohol consumption also affects brain development, potentially impacting learning and memory. Moreover, it increases the likelihood of developing alcohol dependence or addiction and can cause long-term damage to the liver and other organs. Additionally, it can exacerbate mental health issues like depression and anxiety.

Drinking is still a common pastime in the US – roughly 60 percent of adults have been consuming alcohol for decades, with rates sometimes fluctuating as low as 55 percent or as high as 71 percent. While drug use is generally vilified, the public perception of alcohol remains neutral. 

Americans know to consume in moderation but don’t mind having a drink or two from time to time. Furthermore, Americans know and understand alcohol’s dangers to the brain and liver, as well as its negative social effects, and are generally in agreement with the National Health and Medical Research Council as to how much alcohol is “too much”. 

But teen alcohol use is a completely different story. Teens and young adults binge drink far more than older populations, are more likely to drink and drive, and are more likely to struggle with alcohol use disorder as a result of heavy drinking. Understanding and relaying the facts on the dangerous effects of alcohol on teens is important. 

Understanding the Effects of Alcohol on Teens

Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant, first and foremost. It acts on the brain by attaching to receptors that usually communicate with different neurotransmitters. 

Alcohol is metabolized by the liver, and this process of metabolization cannot be sped up – meaning, you cannot get more sober by having a glass of water or some coffee. Until your liver is through with the alcohol in your bloodstream, it will continue to circulate through the blood-brain barrier and interact with your central nervous system. 

Reactions to alcohol differ, as do effective doses. One drink (a glass of wine, a bottle of beer, or a shot of liquor) may be enough to get certain people intoxicated, while others still feel sober. While alcohol is a depressant, it doesn’t have a solely sedative effect. Alcohol’s immediate effects on the mind and body include: 

  • Irritability
  • Impaired hearing and vision
  • Slurred speech
  • Loss of coordination
  • Poor judgment of depth and speed
  • Cognitive impairment

Going overboard with alcohol can quickly lead to serious negative side effects, as well. These can include: 

  • Memory loss
  • Nausea
  • Inhibited/stopped breathing
  • Blacking out/fainting

Something teens often don’t know, or underestimate is the human mind’s inability to judge drunkenness in itself. You often cannot truly notice whether you’re drunk until you’re very drunk. For a lot of teens, it takes no more than a BAC of 0.1 percent to be very drunk. It does not take a lot of alcohol to achieve a BAC of 0.1 percent – for a woman weighing about 150 pounds, it could be as little as 5 drinks in two hours. 

Alcohol and Teen Drug Interactions

For teens on medication, alcohol can be incredibly dangerous. Its effects often compound with other sedatives, sometimes to a life-threatening degree. Some common drug interactions that teens should be aware of include: 

  • Alcohol and aspirin: stomach pain, potential internal bleeding or ulceration. 
  • Alcohol and anti-anxiety medication: extremely slowed breathing and heart rate. 
  • Alcohol and narcotics: extreme sedative effect. 
  • Alcohol and high blood pressure medication: extremely low blood pressure. 
  • Alcohol and antihistamines (allergy medication): drowsiness and low mood. 

Furthermore, alcohol is an addictive drug. The more you drink, the higher the likelihood that you will have a harder time stopping drinking. Alcohol use disorder becomes more likely the younger someone is when they have their first drink. 

Underage Alcohol Use and the Law

Teens need to be cognizant of the physical and mental effects of alcohol use, and the risk of drinking too much, especially over long periods of time. However, it’s also important not to forget the legal consequences

While some states allow teens to consume small amounts of alcohol at home, in the presence of their parents, teenage drinking is generally prohibited even if it is tolerated. For their own safety, teens should try to avoid drinking if only to keep their record clean for adulthood. 

Alcohol use is unfortunately still common among teens. It’s normal for teens to experiment and try things out – but there’s a difference between being curious about having a drink, and regular binge drinking or partying. 

Parents often ask us about strategies to avoid or prevent underage drinking. In most cases, communication is key. There is a lot of merit in taking the time to demystify alcohol and explain both its short-term and long-term effects. The more kids know and understand about drinking, the less likely they are to want to find out about it themselves – especially if it turns out that getting drunk is not quite as fun as it’s chalked up to be. 

We’re often asked about why teens are more susceptible to the effects of drugs than adults. The human brain is one reason – vulnerability to addiction and the addictive effects of alcohol have something to do with the development of certain portions of the brain. These portions remain mostly done, but not entirely matured until the mid-20s. Furthermore, there may be more internal incentives for teens to emulate the behavior of their peers and parents, which may put them at more risk for developing unhealthy habits, including excessive drinking. 

Sometimes, we’re asked about what to do if a parent suspects that their teen is struggling with serious alcohol-related issues. Alcohol is addictive, and the rate at which an addiction might occur is different from teen to teen. 

If your teen has been drinking frequently and is even hiding their drinking, then start by talking to them. If they admit that they need help – or if it’s clear that they can’t help themselves – it’s time to talk to a professional. Work with us here at Visions to begin your recovery journey through our teen alcoholism treatment programs


Teens and parents need to be aware of the effects of alcohol on young people, especially when compared to adults. While alcohol dependency is always a worry with excessive alcohol consumption, teens may be more susceptible to alcohol’s negative effects, including cognitive damage and addiction. At Visions, we help teens with alcohol use and dual diagnosis through our inpatient and outpatient treatment programs. 


What to Do if You Catch Your Teenager Drinking

Surveys estimate that about one in five teens between ages 14 and 15 have had an alcoholic beverage. Binge drinking statistics are even more worrying – about 7.2 percent of boys and 8.8 percent of girls aged 16 and 17 have had a binge drinking session in the last month. More so than any other substance, alcohol is by far the most widely used addictive substance among America’s youth.

If you’ve recently discovered signs that your teenager may be drinking, you may be wondering what to do if you catch your teenager drinking. It’s important to consider a few things … how often are they drinking, how much are they drinking, and how long have they been drinking. While alcohol is dangerous, both due to its addictive nature and its short-term effects on cognition and decision-making, blowing things out of proportion or alienating your teen and losing their trust might not serve you well.

In this article, we will explore what to do if you catch your teenager drinking so you can decide how to respond appropriately. If you suspect your teen may have a drinking problem, consider exploring the benefits of professional help through a reputable teen alcohol treatment program.

Avoid Overreacting

Before you blow up on your teen, take a step back and review the situation within a broader context. 

Most teens are smart enough to know that they shouldn’t be drinking. However, alcohol is also ubiquitous, and some alcohol consumption – especially “social drinking” – is a celebrated and accepted fact of life, especially in adulthood. Many teens don’t know how to deal with this contradiction. 

On one hand, drinking can destroy a life. On the other hand, drinking is portrayed as an important part of growing up in popular media. And many teens desperately want to grow up. 

Mystifying alcohol as something dangerous that only adults can partake in gives it great power, and places it on a pedestal

Finally, even if your teen isn’t particularly interested in drinking, it can be hard to resist peer pressure to at least have one drink when everyone else is having one too. It’s easier to stay sober in groups, or at least in pairs. When you’re the odd one out, things can get awkward. 

The truth is, it’s hard to fault a teen for trying out alcohol. While you have every right to be upset – and a lot of teens expect their parents to be upset – reacting too harshly might get things started off on the wrong foot, especially if you still drink on occasion. The goal shouldn’t be to scare your teen out of drinking (it’s unlikely to work), but to convince them that drinking, especially heavy drinking, is not cool and a bad idea. 

Figuring Out the Scope of the Problem

Short-term alcohol use has immediate effects, most of which are well-recognized. You can smell booze, and reasonably infer the sobriety of a teen based on their words and actions. Alcohol causes slurred speech, impedes balance and coordination, slows critical thinking, and reduces inhibition. If your teen comes home drunk after a long night out with their friends, you can expect to notice it. 

But consistent long-term alcohol use can take a little while to rear its ugly head. Symptoms include inexplicable weight gain, poor sleep quality, frequently red or swollen eyes, poor hygiene, a dropped immune system (more frequently sick), and plenty of long nights.

Emotionally, long-term alcohol use can worsen bouts of anxiety and depression (feeding the urge to drink), increase irritability, shorten a teen’s temper, affect memory and cognition, and change a teen’s behavior. 

Socially, teen drinking may lead to relationship problems, a sudden and vast change in friends and peers, absenteeism, and poor grades. 

It’s important to talk to your teen as soon as you notice that they’ve been drinking. Even if it’s only been once or twice, understanding how and why your teen has been drinking can help you figure out if it’s an issue that can be resolved with a stern talk, or one that might require more help. Not overreacting is also key to getting a straight answer. If you’re more likely to “freak out”, your teen might be more inclined to try and lie to you or minimize the extent of the problem. They need to know that you’re not out to punish them, but rather to help them. 

Creating Boundaries and Setting Expectations

Even if it was just “the one time”, it’s important to set boundaries and clear expectations for what might happen if those boundaries are ignored. The consequences for drinking need to be clear and enforced accordingly. 

Teens also need to understand why these rules are important. Teen drug use, especially alcohol use, is indeed different to adult alcohol use.

Research shows that the earlier a teen starts drinking, the more likely they are to struggle to control their drinking habits later in life. Alcohol has a different effect on teens than it does on adults – because teen brains are still in the developmental stage, alcohol can have a stronger impact on the portions of the brain dedicated to motivation, reward, and pleasure, making them more susceptible to addiction and cognitive decline. 

Then, there are the legal and academic consequences of getting caught drinking. These can significantly impact a teen’s early adulthood and come back to haunt them years later. 

Yes, alcohol is a popular drug, and one that millions of Americans partake in regularly. But just because something is popular doesn’t mean it’s harmless. Teens want to feel and be independent – help them understand that alcohol is something that will only serve to tie them down, limit their potential, and create dependence on a substance that regularly ruins lives, and causes an estimated 3,900 teen deaths per year

Encourage Healthy Activities and Positive Coping Skills

Sometimes, teens turn to alcohol as an outlet for emotional stress. This is especially common in teens who are already struggling with some form of emotional baggage, such as an anxiety disorder or symptoms of depression. One way to help protect them from an alcohol addiction is to encourage healthier, positive coping habits, such as sports, art, a creative endeavor, or their academic ambition. 

Help your teen manage their workload at school by encouraging them to give themselves time to relax, as well, and to learn to schedule work time and play time to avoid the problems of adult procrastination. 

Don’t underestimate your own influence. While parents are worried about peer influence, research consistently points out that teens care more about what their parents think and are still likely to mirror their parents’ actions and views. A healthy parent-teen relationship is one of the strongest protective factors against addiction, as is being a healthy role model by avoiding alcohol and other addictive substances yourself.

Finally, know when it’s time to seek help. Addiction can be a terrible illness, and one that requires professional treatment. If you’re worried that your teen’s drinking is getting out of hand, call today.


10 Dangerous Consequences of Underage Drinking

While teen illicit drug use has been trending down over the years, underage drinking remains common. An estimated third of teens between the ages of 12 and 20 reported having had at least one drink in their lives. This includes about 32 percent of boys and 37 percent of girls. More troubling, however, is that over 8 percent – or about one in twelve teens – reported binge drinking in the last month alone.  

While alcohol is estimated to be one of the most destructive drugs due to its ubiquity and one of the deadliest in terms of sheer casualties, drinking is a fact of life and a part of the culture for many. 

Yet underage drinking poses unique risks for teens, especially with regard to their long-term mental health and cognition. More and more research is showing that early alcohol use heavily correlates with higher rates of drinking and alcoholism later in life, and teenage drinking – especially binge drinking – can take a toll on a teen’s mental and physical development. 

Parents and teens alike may know that alcohol can be harmful and that moderation is always advised, but more awareness is needed on the topic of teen drinking, and its harmful consequences. 

Underage Drinking Affects Brain Development

Alcohol is a potent psychoactive substance. It makes users feel dizzy and euphoric; but aside from these short-term effects, it also interferes with the brain’s centers of communication and cognition, impacting memory, decision-making, risk assessment, speech, and balance for a time. 

However, these effects are especially potent in younger brains, which remain underdeveloped. Research shows that underage drinking can harm the developing brain, leading to lasting problems with memory, learning, and decision-making later in life. 

The Risk of Alcohol Poisoning

In addition to generally being smaller than adults, teens are also more uninhibited, less likely to heed danger and weigh risk, and more likely to engage in risky behavior for social credit – which includes consuming much more alcohol than they should. 

Binge drinking is more common among teens and younger adults than older people, and alcohol poisoning remains one of the most common causes of death for young teens. Brain damage is common in survivors of alcohol poisoning because it frequently involves choking or asphyxiation due to a delayed gag reflex and vomiting. 

How Alcohol Affects Risk Assessment

Alcohol plays a significant role in reducing mental inhibition, which can help with “unwinding”, and feeling joy while drunk. But it also leads to a much greater risk of dangerous behavior, especially drunk driving. About a third of young drivers (15 to 20) who were killed in car crashes had ingested alcohol before driving. What’s worse is that about 5 percent of teen drivers were reportedly drunk while driving at least once in the past month alone

In addition to car deaths, underage drinking is often associated with an increased risk of physical and sexual violence, suicide, homicide, burns, falls, drowning, unplanned or unwanted pregnancies, and the misuse of other substances while drunk. 

Teens Are More Prone to Alcohol Addiction

Alcohol is an addictive substance. The prolonged and recurring use of alcohol can cause changes in the brain, devaluing other sources of motivation or pleasure, and causing physical withdrawal symptoms and cravings for alcohol. 

However, what makes underage drinking particularly dangerous is that teen brains are naturally more prone to these changes. Teens get addicted to substances at a faster rate, and at a higher rate. Studies show that drinking at a young age can dramatically increase the risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD) later in life, versus avoiding alcohol until legal age. 

The Legal Consequences of Underage Drinking

The immediate and long-term impact of underage drinking on brain development, risk of death, and addiction is meant to be reinforced by underage drinking laws, which prohibit the sale of alcohol to individuals under the age of 21 in the US, and severely limit the circumstances under which a person under that age might be allowed to drink, such as at home. 

Underage drinking is illegal, and getting caught can result in legal problems, including jail time and hefty fines. Furthermore, driving while drunk and getting hurt can be a massive stain on a teen’s record – and a teen drunk driver may be found guilty of a felony if injuries or casualties are involved. 

Underage Drinking, Depression, Anxiety, and Mental Health

The irony of alcohol is that it can temporarily alleviate feelings of anxiety, and even give the impression that it helps reduce depressive thoughts. But short-term drunkenness is overshadowed by the long-term impact of drinking, which includes a sharp increase in anxiety symptoms, worsened depressive symptoms, and a higher risk of developing other mental health issues, including trauma disorders or addiction. 

The Physical Effects of Early Alcohol Use

In addition to affecting the brain, alcohol also affects the liver, kidneys, heart, and reproductive organs. Drinking at a young age can increase a teen’s risk of developing heart disease, a stroke, liver cirrhosis, or cancer, especially cancer of the throat and liver cancer. 

Alcohol Abuse and School

The effects of continued alcohol use on a teen’s report cards are entirely negative. Memory and cognition problems can make it harder to focus on school subjects while the mental health toll adds further stress. 

Alcoholism and Relationships

Alcohol use can lead to changes in personality, especially in the short term. Irritability and a shortened temper are some key symptoms of addiction, and withdrawal. Underage drinking may push away friends and family alike and make it harder to forge lasting bonds of friendship with others. 

The Long-Term Impacts of Underage Drinking

We all grow up, one way or the other. Struggling with an addiction in your teen years can continue to become a burden well into later life. Legal troubles, academic problems, and a poor social reputation can make the transition into adulthood much harder for a young teen, limiting college acceptance changes and job opportunities, and negatively impacting valuable friendships, relationships, and acquaintances. 

It’s no surprise that underage drinking is bad – but understanding the full extent to which it can affect a teen’s life may be important, to both teens and parents. 

After all, parental influence remains stronger than peer influence, even for young adults living with their parents – and one of the most effective predictors of underage drinking is excessive alcohol use in the family. If alcohol use disorder runs in the family, being a strong role model can be a crucial protective factor for your teen. 

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10 Places Your Teen Can Hide Drugs

If you believe that your teen has been using drugs as of late, chances are that they have some with them at home. Where teens hide drugs are not always immediately obvious – you might not find a quarter ounce of weed stuffed away in a sock at the bottom of the drawer or in the pocket of their least favorite jacket – but there are only so many places you can hide drugs around a house.

While your teen might be more inventive than most, these tend to be the most common places your teen can hide drugs from snooping siblings and parents alike.

1. Scent-proofed Stashes

Not all drugs have a strong scent. Trained dogs can sniff out drugs like cocaine even amid a pile of dirty laundry, but the human nose is not that advanced. That being said, some popular drugs, like marijuana, in particular, have a very strong and distinctive scent. This narrows down a teen’s options.

The first, yet probably most obvious thing to do, is to bury the stash. The problem with doing so is that it’s pretty easy to tell when a hole has been freshly dug, and they’d have to signpost it somehow to avoid losing their weed. It’s still worth checking the backyard, though.

Other scent-proofed possibilities include large jars of coffee (coffee is a natural deodorant and has its own scent), empty roll-on deodorant sticks, inside an unused bag of pet food, or a permanent marker with a strong scent.

2. Video Game Consoles

Some consoles are a bit more infamous than others for providing great hiding opportunities. One disadvantage is that consoles are just like computers but optimized for space and performance. This means they can get quite hot, which isn’t ideal for some drugs. Checking your teen’s console might be tricky, as it can be fairly easy to damage.

There are plenty of tutorials online for removing the front panel of a video game console, whether it’s a Playstation, an Xbox, or an older Wii U. Portable consoles like the Switch or PS Vita are much more difficult to use as potential drug stashes, due to their compact nature. Old, unused, or broken consoles can be retrofitted into potential drug stashes, however, by removing key components. On a similar note, your teen’s PC tower might be another place to look.

3. The Backyard

We’ve mentioned burying drugs, but that isn’t the only option. A backyard is a place full of potential (and great) hiding spots. Hollow garden gnomes? Hollow spaces inside flowerpots? Under a slab in the rock garden? In the tool shed, hidden behind the fertilizer? The possibilities are endless – which makes the backyard one of the better hiding spots, provided it’s large enough to make searching difficult.

4. Personal Hygiene Products

Teens expect a little privacy from their parents, at least when it comes to what they use to get ready for the day. However, old and used containers or empty makeup kits make for a good hiding spot.

5. Their Car

It’s obvious but effective. Don’t just check on the floor or in the glovebox – drugs can be taped under the seat or dashboard or stashed under the hood.

6. Toilet Tank

The toilet tank is an all-time favorite. Simple, marginally gross, and easy to access.

7. Air Vents

Most modern homes no longer have these, but older homes and apartments do. Air vents are a pretty convenient place to stash anything that’s relatively small and doesn’t have a significant odor or can be placed in an odor-safe container. That means you likely won’t find weed in an air vent your teen has access to, but you might find – depending on the size of the vent and the space provided – alcohol, certain prescription pills, or cocaine.

An alternative yet similar hiding space is an unused air conditioning unit. Most older air conditioning units have an easily removable front panel and a little bit of space for hiding things.

8. Cookie and Candy Tins

Altoids have been making a comeback – not so much for the candy itself but for the nostalgic and aesthetic factor of the tin. In addition to cash, teens might also use Altoid tins to stash other valuables. The same goes for cookie tins, old candy tins, etc. 

9. Behind Posters

If the drug is in a powder form or can be easily flattened (such as a small plastic bag with a few pills), another good place to hide it would be behind a poster taped against the wall.

10. Inside Books

It’s not done very often, but people do still hollow out cavities in books they aren’t really a fan of and use that as a discrete hiding spot.

Necessity Is the Mother of Invention

Even if your teen does not typically apply their full faculties to daily tasks and schoolwork, never underestimate a teenager’s capacity for innovation and inventiveness when it comes down to it.

Going Through Great Lengths to Hide Drugs

Teens understand that drugs are dangerous and that they shouldn’t use them frivolously. But oftentimes, they don’t care. Whether it’s because most teens have an immortality complex or because the long-term consequences of drug use are known, but simply don’t register in their minds, teens can and will go through great lengths to hide drugs or their drug use, especially if they live in an area where it’s both harder to get drugs, and where punishment for drug possession is greater.

What if You Don’t Find Anything?

If you don’t find your teen’s drug stash or think they might not be keeping any drugs at hand, after all, that does not necessarily mean they aren’t taking anything. If you catch your teen being high regularly without having any drugs at home, it can only mean one thing: they’re getting and using drugs while out with friends or acquaintances.

Suspicious Behavior Doesn’t Equal a Drug Problem

Last but not least, not all suspicious teen behavior is indicative of a drug problem. If you don’t have any conclusive proof that your teen is regularly using drugs, then their behavior could be explained in other ways. Irritability, pulling away from family, anxious or paranoid behavior, and memory problems can be caused by other conditions, including stress- or trauma-related anxiety. If your teen doesn’t want to talk about their problems and habits, consider speaking with a mental health professional about potential intervention tactics.

For more information, please contact Visions Treatment Centers. If your teen is struggling with substance abuse, reach out to us to learn more about residential treatment program options and much more.

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Are Popular Music Festivals Endangering Your Teen?

Drugs, Inappropriate Behavior and Death

These last few months have been all the rage with teens and everyone under 30. Music festival season took off, as it does each summer and trails of at the start of fall. So Cal is one of the best places to be if you’re into any type of music from hip-hop and indie to heavy metal and techno. Whatever you’re looking to blow out your eardrums to, there’s a festival for it for sure. These festivals can be fun and are the talk of the town for celebrities all over the world that flock here to things like Coachella for the fashion, the press, the food and most importantly the music. Weeks before these festivals, people wait in their online cue to pay hundreds of dollars or a couple thousand to lay out in the hot California sun for a three-day dehydrating extravaganza. But when do these festivals get out of hand and why? Are popular music festivals endangering your teen?

Not So Wonderful, eh Wonderland?

Just this weekend, Labor Day weekend, there was a huge festival called Nocturnal Wonderland out in Southern California at the San Manuel Amphitheater where thousands flock to see their favorite DJs and mix artists. This festival is one that has to be smack in the center of nature because it gets loud and crazy. Every year there are hundreds of arrests, but this year there was a record 428 arrests made for teens that were under age and under the influence, to people being completely out of their minds on drugs and a few cases of public exposure. This festival is known for drugs and lots of them which are why several arrests were made on those that were at the concert to sell large inventories of drugs such as combinations of anything goes ecstasy, marijuana, cocaine, LSD and more.

For some kids, this festival is about exploration and getting out there to try new things without worrying about getting caught. The only problem is this time cops were ready to take down anyone that was doing just that. These festivals would be a perfect place for someone that enjoyed the music and was responsible enough to say no to harsh substances, but many teens that attend have no idea what they’re getting themselves into. There have been a few cases where overdose and death on the first attempt at drug use for young people has occurred at this particular festival. So, if your teen is pushing to go to these concerts, they may not be prepared for what’s available to them; this is where addiction and bad habits are formed, but we should be aware of the risks. Know all the facts and educate your child before you allow them to take part in music festivals such as these.

If you feel your teen has an addiction and needs rehabilitation, please call Visions Adolescent Treatment Center today at (818) 889-3665 to schedule an appointment with our addiction specialists.

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What is “Normal”? Signs of Mental Illness in Teens

The teen years are filled with emotional ups and downs and sudden mood swings. How can you tell whether your teen’s behavior is normal or an indication something might be wrong? Parents of teens may worry that their teen is exhibiting symptoms of a mental illness, but they may not be sure how to identify the condition or talk to their teen about what they are seeing. The staff at Visions Adolescent Treatment Centers has some of the early signs of mental illness to watch for and what to do if you see those signs in your own child.

The Prevalence of Mental Illness

According to the National Alliance on Mental Health (NAMI), around 20 percent of youth between the ages of 13 and 18 suffer from a mental health condition. Some of those teens will turn to drugs or alcohol to “self-medicate” their symptoms, creating a substance abuse disorder in addition to a mental illness. A significant portion of those youth also drop out of high school or end up in the juvenile justice system. Common mental illnesses that develop during the teen years include:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Mood disorders
  • Behavior disorders
  • Eating disorders

Half of all mental illnesses begin by the age of 14. Another 25 percent occur by the age of 27. The earlier these illnesses are identified and treated, the better prognosis both during the teen years and into adulthood.

Signs of Mental Illness

There are a number of possible signs your teen may be suffering from a mental illness:

  • Mood shifts out of character from your teen’s usual mood fluctuations
  • Withdrawal from family, friends and activities
  • Difficulty in school or relationship problems with friends
  • Behavioral changes that make your child seem like a different person
  • Weight loss without any clear cause
  • Risk-taking behavior completely out of character for your teen
  • Signs of drug or alcohol use that could indicate your teen is self-medicating
  • Symptoms of sadness that last more than a week or two
  • Suicidal thoughts or ideations

Any one of these signs alone may not necessarily be a problem, but if you begin to see a pattern that is different from what your teen usually displays, don’t wait to seek guidance and assistance. Talk to your teen about what you have observed – you may be met with resistance, but at least your child will see that you care and you are willing to get the necessary help. The sooner you get your teen the medical support needed, the less likely your child will be to turn to drugs and alcohol as a means of dealing with their illness. If drug or alcohol use is already present, Visions Adolescent Treatment Centers can help. Contact us today at 866-889-3665.

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The Link between Sleep Patterns and Substance Abuse

The link between sleep and substance abuse has been widely studied, particularly in regards to the sleep problems that can arise as a result of drug or alcohol abuse. However, recent studies have also shown a reverse relationship, suggesting poor sleep patterns can also help predict which teens may be drawn to substance use. As more studies show a compelling association between sleep and substance abuse, parents may be able to use this information to lower the risk of substance use by their teens through helping them form healthy sleep habits.

Sleep Patterns and Alcohol or Marijuana Use
Teens that tend to stay up later at night are also more likely to have used marijuana or alcohol within the past month, a new study from the Rand Corporation has found. Researchers asked more than 2,500 teens from 16 middle schools in Southern California about their total nightly sleep time, as well as their marijuana and alcohol use once they reached high school. All of the surveys were completed between May 2013 and April 2014.

“Our findings suggest that sleep issues are independently associated with alcohol and marijuana use for teens, not just a marker for other risk factors, such as depression,” Wendy Troxel, lead author for the study, was quoted as saying in a Rand Corporation press release. However, researchers cautioned that their findings did not determine a cause and effect, so it was unknown if sleep problems simply predict alcohol and marijuana use or actually lead to it.

Sleep Problems May Lead to Binge Drinking
The Rand Corporation study is not the first to show a compelling association between lack of sleep and drug and alcohol abuse. Earlier this year, researchers at Idaho State University studied more than 6,500 teenagers to determine a link between sleep and alcohol problems. Through interviews and questionnaires, the scientists found that sleep issues appeared to be a potential predictor of substance abuse.

Specified sleep problems encompassed difficulty getting to sleep and staying asleep, as well as sleeping too little. Specific drug and alcohol issues linked to sleep problems in this study included:

  • Getting drunk or high
  • Binge drinking
  • Driving under the influence
  • Risky sexual behavior regretted later
  • Use of illegal drugs

Although sleep may be an important factor in whether a teen might use or abuse substances, it is certainly not the only one. There are many circumstances that could play into whether an adolescent will choose to use drugs or alcohol. If you suspect your teen is abusing these substances, the professionals at Visions Adolescent Treatment Centers can help. Contact us today at 866-889-3665.

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